Hepatic ischemiaIschemic hepatitis; Shock liver
Hepatic ischemia is a condition in which the liver does not get enough blood or oxygen. This causes injury to liver cells.
Low blood pressure from any condition can lead to hepatic ischemia. Such conditions may include:
Other causes may include:
- Blood clots in the main artery to the liver (hepatic artery) after a liver transplant
- Swelling of blood vessels, leading to reduced blood flow (vasculitis)
- Heat stroke
- Having a sickle cell crisis
The person may have altered mental status due to reduced blood flow to the brain. Other symptoms may include:
- Loss of appetite
- Feeling of general discomfort
Damage to the liver cells most often does not cause symptoms until it affects liver function.
Blood clots in the liver's main artery may cause abdominal pain.
Exams and Tests
The following tests will be done:
- Blood tests to check liver function (AST and ALT). These readings can be very high with ischemia.
- Doppler ultrasound of the blood vessels of the liver.
Treatment depends on the cause. Low blood pressure and blood clots must be treated right away.
People generally recover if the illness causing hepatic ischemia can be treated. Death from liver failure due to hepatic ischemia is very rare.
Liver failure is a rare, but fatal complication.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Quickly treating the causes of low blood pressure may prevent hepatic ischemia.
Anstee QM, Jones DEJ. Hepatology. In: Ralston SH, Penman ID, Strachan MWJ, Hobson RP, eds. Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 22.
Korenblat KM, Berk PD. Approach to the patient with jaundice or abnormal liver tests. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 138.
Nery FG, Valla DC. Vascular diseases of the liver. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 85.
Review Date: 5/27/2020
Reviewed By: Jenifer K. Lehrer, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Aria - Jefferson Health Torresdale, Jefferson Digestive Diseases Network, Philadelphia, PA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.