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Sleep disorder - insomnia; Sleep issues; Difficulty falling asleep; Sleep hygiene - insomnia

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Insomnia is trouble falling asleep, staying asleep through the night, or waking up too early in the morning.

Episodes of insomnia may come and go or be long-lasting.

The quality of your sleep is as important as how much sleep you get.

Sleep Myths & Facts Quiz

  • What percent of adults are getting 6 hours or less of sleep each night?


    A. About 10%


    B. About 20%


    C. About 30%


    D. About 50%

    Correct Answer
  • Lack of sleep is linked to which if the following?


    A. Car accidents


    B. Industrial disasters


    C. Medical errors


    D. Errors at work


    E. All of the above

    Correct Answer
  • Getting too little sleep put you at risk for:


    A. High blood pressure


    B. Diabetes


    C. Depression


    D. Weight gain


    E. Cancer


    F. Early death


    G. All of the above

    Correct Answer
  • Which of the following is NOT a good sleep habit?


    A. Getting up at the same time every day


    B. Avoiding big meals before bedtime


    C. Sleeping in on the weekends


    D. Avoiding caffeine after 2 p.m.


    E. Avoiding alcohol before bed

    Correct Answer
  • You need the same amount of sleep throughout your lifespan.


    A. True


    B. False

    Correct Answer
  • Which of the following can make it hard to get to sleep and stay asleep?


    A. Going to bed at different times each night


    B. Napping during the day


    C. Sleeping with a bright night light


    D. Not getting enough exercise


    E. Watching TV before bed


    F. Using a computer in bed


    G. All of the above

    Correct Answer
  • Sleeping pills are the best treatment for insomnia.


    A. True


    B. False

    Correct Answer
  • Getting less than 8 hours of sleep at night is bad for your health.


    A. True


    B. False

    Correct Answer
  • Some people stop breathing while they’re asleep.


    A. True


    B. False

    Correct Answer
  • Which of the following is a symptom of sleep apnea?


    A. Loud snoring


    B. Daytime sleepiness


    C. Morning headaches


    D. Sore throat, dry mouth, cough


    E. All of the above

    Correct Answer
  • Which group of people is at risk for sleep apnea?


    A. People who are overweight or obese


    B. Men


    C. Children with enlarged tonsils


    D. All of the above

    Correct Answer
  • Drinking alcohol before bed will help you sleep better.


    A. True


    B. False

    Correct Answer


Sleep habits we learned as children may affect our sleep behaviors as adults. Poor sleep or lifestyle habits that may cause insomnia or make it worse include:

  • Going to bed at a different time each night
  • Daytime napping
  • Poor sleeping environment, such as too much noise or light
  • Spending too much time in bed while awake
  • Working evenings or night shifts
  • Not getting enough exercise
  • Using the television, computer, or a mobile device in bed

The use of some medicines and drugs may also affect sleep, including:

  • Alcohol or other drugs
  • Heavy smoking
  • Too much caffeine throughout the day or drinking caffeine late in the day
  • Getting used to certain types of sleep medicines
  • Some cold medicines and diet pills
  • Other medicines, herbs, or supplements

Physical, social, and mental health issues can affect sleep patterns, including:

  • Bipolar disorder.
  • Feeling sad or depressed. (Often, insomnia is the symptom that causes people with depression to seek medical help.)
  • Stress and anxiety, whether it is short-term or long-term. For some people, the stress caused by insomnia makes it even harder to fall asleep.

Health problems may also lead to problems sleeping and insomnia:

  • Pregnancy
  • Physical pain or discomfort.
  • Waking up at night to use the bathroom, common in men with enlarged prostate
  • Sleep apnea

With age, sleep patterns tend to change. Many people find that aging causes them to have a harder time falling asleep, and that they wake up more often.



The most common complaints or symptoms in people with insomnia are:

  • Trouble falling asleep on most nights
  • Feeling tired during the day or falling asleep during the day
  • Not feeling refreshed when you wake up
  • Waking up several times during sleep

People who have insomnia are sometimes consumed by the thought of getting enough sleep. But the more they try to sleep, the more frustrated and upset they get, and the harder sleep becomes.

Lack of restful sleep can:

  • Make you tired and unfocused, so it is hard to do daily activities.
  • Put you at risk for auto accidents. If you are driving and feel sleepy, pull over and take a break.

Exams and Tests

Your health care provider will do a physical exam and ask about your current medicines, drug use, and medical history. Usually, these are the only methods needed to diagnose insomnia.


Not getting 8 hours of sleep every night does not mean your health is at risk. Different people have different sleep needs. Some people do fine on 6 hours of sleep a night. Others only do well if they get 10 to 11 hours of sleep a night.

Treatment often begins by reviewing any medicines or health problems that may be causing or worsen insomnia, such as:

  • Enlarged prostate gland, causing men to wake up at night
  • Pain or discomfort from muscle, joint, or nerve disorders, such as arthritis and Parkinson disease
  • Other medical conditions, such as acid reflux, allergies, and thyroid problems
  • Mental health disorders, such as depression and anxiety 

You should also think about lifestyle and sleep habits that may affect your sleep. This is called sleep hygiene. Making some changes in your sleep habits may improve or solve your insomnia.

Some people may need medicines to help with sleep for a short period of time. But in the long run, making changes in your lifestyle and sleep habits is the best treatment for problems with falling and staying asleep.

  • Most over-the-counter (OTC) sleeping pills contain antihistamines. These medicines are commonly used to treat allergies. Your body quickly becomes used to them.
  • Sleep medicines called hypnotics can be prescribed by your provider to help reduce the time it takes you to fall asleep. Most of these can become habit-forming.
  • Medicines used to treat anxiety or depression can also help with sleep

Different methods of talk therapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), may help you gain control over anxiety or depression.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Most people are able to sleep by practicing good sleep hygiene.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your provider if insomnia has become a problem.


Anderson KN. Insomnia and cognitive behavioural therapy-how to assess your patient and why it should be a standard part of care. J Thorac Dis. 2018;10(Suppl 1):S94-S102. PMID: 29445533

Chokroverty S, Avidan AY. Sleep and its disorders. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 102.

Vaughn BV, Basner RC. Disorders of sleep. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 377.


    • Insomnia



    • Insomnia


      A Closer Look


      Review Date: 5/10/2020

      Reviewed By: Fred K. Berger, MD, addiction and forensic psychiatrist, Scripps Memorial Hospital, La Jolla, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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